Excel is a powerful tool for performing basic mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. These operations can be performed using formulas and functions in Excel.

**In this topic:**

## Performing Mathematical Operations in Excel

To perform basic mathematical operations in Excel, follow these steps:

- Open Excel and create a new spreadsheet or open an existing one.
- Enter the numbers you want to calculate into the cells.
- Select the cell where you want the result to appear.
- Type the formula for the operation you want to perform. For example, to add two numbers, type “=A1+B1” (without quotes) in the cell where you want the result to appear.
- Press Enter to calculate the result. The result will appear in the selected cell.

Here are some examples of basic mathematical operations in Excel:

### Addition:

To add two or more numbers in Excel, use the SUM function. For example, to add the numbers in cells A1 and A2, you would enter “=SUM(A1:A2)” (without quotes) in another cell.

### Subtraction:

To subtract one number from another in Excel, use the “-” symbol or the SUBTRACT function. For example, to subtract the number in cell A2 from the number in cell A1, you would enter “=A1-A2” (without quotes) in another cell.

### Multiplication:

To multiply two or more numbers in Excel, use the “*” symbol or the PRODUCT function. For example, to multiply the numbers in cells A1 and A2, you would enter “=A1*A2″ (without quotes) in another cell.

### Division:

To divide one number by another in Excel, use the “/” symbol or the QUOTIENT function. For example, to divide the number in cell A1 by the number in cell A2, you would enter “=A1/A2” (without quotes) in another cell.

Excel also has built-in functions for other mathematical operations such as exponents, square roots, logarithms, and trigonometric functions. These functions can be used to perform more complex calculations that involve multiple cells or ranges of cells.

### Exponents:

To raise a number to a power in Excel, use the “^” symbol or the POWER function. For example, to calculate 2 raised to the power of 3, you would enter “=2^3” (without quotes) in a cell. The result would be 8. Alternatively, you could use the POWER function by entering “=POWER(2,3)” (without quotes) in a cell.

### Square Roots:

To calculate the square root of a number in Excel, use the SQRT function. For example, to calculate the square root of 16, you would enter “=SQRT(16)” (without quotes) in a cell. The result would be 4.

### Logarithms:

To calculate the logarithm of a number in Excel, use the LOG function. For example, to calculate the natural logarithm of 10, you would enter “=LOG(10)” (without quotes) in a cell. The result would be approximately 2.302585.

### Trigonometric Functions:

To perform trigonometric calculations in Excel, use the SIN, COS, and TAN functions. For example, to calculate the sine of an angle in radians, you would enter “=SIN(angle)” (without quotes) in a cell. Similarly, to calculate the cosine of an angle or the tangent of an angle, you would use the COS or TAN functions, respectively.

Overall, Excel provides a variety of built-in functions and symbols that make it easy to perform basic and complex mathematical operations. These tools can be used to perform calculations quickly and efficiently, saving time and reducing errors in data entry.

### Examples

Here’s an example of a table with data in Column A and Column B, and formulas for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division in Columns C to F:

Column A | Column B | Column C (Addition) | Column D (Subtraction) | Column E (Multiplication) | Column F (Division) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

5 | 10 | =A1+B1 | =A1-B1 | =A1*B1 | =A1/B1 |

8 | 3 | =A2+B2 | =A2-B2 | =A2*B2 | =A2/B2 |

2 | 7 | =A3+B3 | =A3-B3 | =A3*B3 | =A3/B3 |

6 | 4 | =A4+B4 | =A4-B4 | =A4*B4 | =A4/B4 |

In this example, the data is in Column A and Column B, and the formulas for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are in Columns C to F. The formulas are:

- Column C: “=A1+B1” for addition
- Column D: “=A1-B1” for subtraction
- Column E: “=A1*B1” for multiplication
- Column F: “=A1/B1” for division

The results of these formulas are calculated automatically and shown in the corresponding cells. Here’s what the table looks like with the results:

Column A | Column B | Column C (Addition) | Column D (Subtraction) | Column E (Multiplication) | Column F (Division) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

5 | 10 | 15 | -5 | 50 | 0.5 |

8 | 3 | 11 | 5 | 24 | 2.666666 |

2 | 7 | 9 | -5 | 14 | 0.285714 |

6 | 4 | 10 | 2 | 24 | 1.5 |

The second table can be created by copying the data and formulas from the first table to a new set of columns, and the results will update automatically based on the new input data.

### Mathematical Operations in Real-time Use Cases

Here are some real-time use cases of mathematical operations in Excel in different business scenarios:

Business Scenario | Mathematical Operation | Example |
---|---|---|

Finance and Accounting | Addition and Subtraction | Calculating total revenue and expenses for a period by adding or subtracting individual transactions |

Multiplication and Division | Calculating profit margins and return on investment by multiplying or dividing revenue and expenses | |

Sales and Marketing | Addition | Tracking sales targets and progress by adding up individual sales figures |

Multiplication | Calculating sales growth rates and trends by multiplying sales figures over different periods | |

Operations and Production | Addition | Tracking inventory levels by adding up the quantities of individual products |

Division | Calculating production efficiency by dividing the total output by the total input | |

Human Resources | Subtraction | Calculating employee turnover rates by subtracting the number of employees who leave from the number of employees at the start of a period |

Multiplication | Calculating salaries and bonuses by multiplying hourly rates or annual salaries by the number of hours worked or performance metrics | |

Project Management | Addition and Subtraction | Tracking project budgets and costs by adding or subtracting individual expenses |

Division | Calculating project completion rates by dividing the number of completed tasks by the total number of tasks |

In each of these business scenarios, Excel’s built-in mathematical functions and operators can be used to perform calculations and analyze data quickly and efficiently, leading to better decision-making and improved business performance.